Zaapa webcam in Ubuntu Linux 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon)

Zaapa ZA-WACM webcamAs part of the “multi-services server” that I’m preparing based on Ubuntu Linux 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon), I have decided to buy a cheap webcam that allows me to try the possibilities of motion detection in Ubuntu Linux.To accomplish that, I have found a this Zaapa ZA-WACM-VC2P webcam (with night light) for 13€.

To make it work in Ubuntu, the first thing that we should know is if the chipset is supported. To find out that, once we plug in the webcam by USB, we execute the following command:

lsusb

and we should see an output similar to this:

Bus 004 Device 003: ID 0ac8:307b Z-Star Microelectronics Corp.

With this information we can know the Vendor_id=0ac8 and the Product_id=307b (in red). We could also see this using the graphical user interfase usbview. Another thing that we can see is the manufacturer of the chipset Z-Star/Vimicro (that is also used in many other cheap webcams) Among the output of the usbview program, we can see somthing like this Manufacturer: Vimicro Corp.

To configure this camera, I have found a very complete manual (in french) prepared by Olivier Hoarau. Even though, I had also needed to make something else apart from the instructions of the manual.

NOTE: The necessary driver for this webcam (gspca) is available by default on Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon), but in order to make this particular camera work, we need to use the last version of the driver and therefore we will have to download it, compile it and finally install it.

I’m going to summarize the steps I took:

1) Download and untar the file gspcav120071224.tar.gz:

tar xvfz gspcav1­20071224.tar.gz

2) Compile and install the driver:

cd gspcav1-20071224 make clean
make sudo make install

NOTE: For this step you need to have installed the linux headers
package that correspond to your kernel version: linux-headers-$(uname-r)

3) This is the extra step that I had to do:

sudo gedit /etc/modprobe.d/options

and add an option for this driver:

options gspca force_rgb=1

And now we can go on with the instructions from the manual.

4) Load the driver:

sudo modprobe gspca

5) At this moment, the device should be created. We can verify it by issuing the following command:

ls /dev/video*

and we will see which is the device that has been created (it can be /dev/video0 or /dev/video1)

From this point on, we can install some utility program that allows us to test if the webcam is working fine: camorama, gqcam o spcagui (available from the same web site that the driver), for example.

Below you can see an image taken with my own camera:

Webcam test

Later on I will explain the necessary steps to set up a motion detection system in Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) using a very flexible program called motion.

42 comments so far

  1. hman on

    ys, work but my image is very luminous, there is a brightness parameter for this driver ?

  2. Haley on

    I’d followed the guide in the package and also your manual but still can’t get my webcam working. i’m using ubuntu 7.10 as you said is stable. my webcam has Sonix sn9c120a chip which is compatible. after loading the driver i found that the webcam was detected properly but camorama just can’t connect to it. however, if i plug it in when running livecd, camorama just work straight with the webcam. is there any good solution that ou can suggest me??? i’m ready to reinstall my ubuntu 7.10 to make a clean start.

  3. rofranco on

    Hello Haley,

    You could try to see if you get any messages from camorama when you try to connect. And maybe you can also try with other programs like spcagui (available from the drivers website)

    Good luck!!

  4. Haley on

    Thanks a lot!!! now my webcam works after reinstall of ubuntu 7.10 and without any other driver installation. but it sometimes get disconnected and i will need to restart the system to get it work again.

  5. rofranco on

    I’m glad that you could make it work. I haven’t tested the webcam intensively yet. Once I have my “motion detection system” set up I will see what happens.

  6. zasek on

    but I have Atech PK-130MG 0ac8:0328 ..! what to do?

  7. rofranco on

    Hello Zasek,

    I can’t find it on the list, nor in the web. You can still try to follow this procedure, but you may not be able to make it work.
    Apparently, many vendors don’t collaborate at all to help open source developers build the drivers for Linux.

  8. baucha on

    I also hav the same 0ac8:307b Z-star Microelectronics Corp webcam, and I hav tried whatever u hav mentioned but cant get it to work. when i run camorama it gets stuck and i tried with kopete also. there also it gets stuck. What else can i do? any help will be greatly appreciated.

  9. mau on

    i have a problem wityh this webcam on kubuntu 7.10

    dev/video device is not created…

    PLEASE HELP ME

    thnaks

  10. baucha on

    @ mau

    It seems u hav to connect the webcam while doing this. I’m also using kubuntu 7.10 with this 0ac8:307b z-star microelectronics webcam. I get all the steps. Only thing is when i use any webcam apps it freezes.

  11. rofranco on

    It is important to take a look at dmesg after loading the driver. That can give you an idea about what can be wrong.

  12. baucha on

    [ 4410.644000] usbcore: registered new interface driver gspca
    [ 4410.644000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: gspca driver 01.00.20 registered
    [ 4596.260000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: USB GSPCA camera found.(ZC3XX)
    [ 4596.260000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_probe:4275] Camera type JPEG
    [ 4596.260000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/Vimicro/zc3xx.h: [zc3xx_config:591] Sensor OV7620
    [ 4596.264000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_getcapability:1249] maxw 640 maxh 480 minw 160 minh 120
    [ 4596.264000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: data format set to RGB
    [ 4793.328000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 4921.040000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 4929.008000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 4930.496000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_do_ioctl:2124] Bridge ZC301-2
    [ 4930.496000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_do_ioctl:2124] Bridge ZC301-2
    [ 4930.496000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: VIDIOCMCAPTURE: invalid format (7)
    [ 4930.504000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 5617.512000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 5618.968000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 5681.288000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 5682.756000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_do_ioctl:2124] Bridge ZC301-2
    [ 5693.620000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 5747.244000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 5755.248000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 6115.656000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: USB GSPCA camera found.(ZC3XX)
    [ 6115.656000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_probe:4275] Camera type JPEG
    [ 6115.656000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/Vimicro/zc3xx.h: [zc3xx_config:591] Sensor OV7620
    [ 6115.660000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_getcapability:1249] maxw 640 maxh 480 minw 160 minh 120
    [ 6115.660000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: data format set to RGB
    [ 6236.792000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 6244.712000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [ 6342.608000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [17246.280000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: USB GSPCA camera found.(ZC3XX)
    [17246.280000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_probe:4275] Camera type JPEG
    [17246.280000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/Vimicro/zc3xx.h: [zc3xx_config:591] Sensor OV7620
    [17246.284000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_getcapability:1249] maxw 640 maxh 480 minw 160 minh 120
    [17246.284000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: data format set to RGB
    [22796.632000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [22804.536000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [22832.064000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [23021.044000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [23056.628000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [23121.504000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [23139.432000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca50x_isoc_irq:1146] Non-zero status (-84) in isoc completion handler.
    [23139.448000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca50x_isoc_irq:1146] Non-zero status (-84) in isoc completion handler.
    [23139.464000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca50x_isoc_irq:1146] Non-zero status (-84) in isoc completion handler.
    [23139.480000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca50x_isoc_irq:1146] Non-zero status (-84) in isoc completion handler.
    [23170.404000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: USB GSPCA camera found.(ZC3XX)
    [23170.404000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_probe:4275] Camera type JPEG
    [23170.404000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/Vimicro/zc3xx.h: [zc3xx_config:591] Sensor OV7620
    [23170.408000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [spca5xx_getcapability:1249] maxw 640 maxh 480 minw 160 minh 120
    [23170.408000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: data format set to RGB
    [23781.584000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [23916.276000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7
    [23960.904000] /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0x81 AlternateSet 7

  13. baucha on

    i saw a post in skype forum abt the same cam. someone has mentioned that there is a patch. I have applied it as well but to no avail.

    Patch file:
    http://www.integrazioneweb.com/themonospot/packages/zc3xx-307b-patch.txt

    skype forum: post#22
    http://forum.skype.com/index.php?s=dcfd4d4198264a970cd10c6a0f62c90f&showtopic=106357&st=20

  14. baucha on

    it seems my webcam uses sensor OV7620 which is supported by the later gspca driver but i dunno wot is causing it not to respond. this is the message log that is recorded whenever i try to access my webcam
    /home/baucha/Documents/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: [gspca_set_isoc_ep:945] ISO EndPoint found 0×81 AlternateSet 7

    Any idea so far?

  15. Benjamin Bauer on

    Hello,

    i´ve followed your steps but theres no /dev/video*

    dmesg sais:

    424.774635] usb 3-1: USB disconnect, address 2
    [ 427.776952] usb 7-1: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 2
    [ 427.973043] usb 7-1: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice

    any opinion?

    thats my cam:

    Bus 007 Device 002: ID 0ac8:307b Z-Star Microelectronics Corp.

  16. rubberduck on

    Hi there – got same problem as Benjamin Bauer…

    Tried to follow the steps mentioned before but in the end got no video in my /dev

    any ideas?
    thx

  17. Jan Schmidt on

    Me too, did all i could but the same problem as Benjamin.

    dont know why…

  18. rofranco on

    An idea for baucha:

    I found this Ubuntu forum thread that might help you.

    It seems that you may have some kind of problem with any other bandwidth-hungry or malfunctioning USB device that is connected to your USB bus.

    Try to unplug other devices and try again… if it works, let me know !!!

    Good luck.

  19. rofranco on

    For Benjamin Bauer / rubberduck / Jan Schmidt:

    It seems that the driver is not being loaded. Try issuing the command:
    lsmod | grep gspca

    and see if the driver (gspca) is loaded.

    You can also try to see if the driver module is installed, using this:
    locate gspca.ko

    The module should be installed in a folder like the following: /lib/modules/–kernel_version–/…etc…/drivers

    Finally, note the permissions for the video devices. A user will have to belong to the video group to be able to access them.

    Please tell me if you have more info about it. You can also check your syslog file:
    grep gspca /var/log/syslog|more

    Good luck!!

  20. rubberduck on

    thanx for qick reply, these are my results:

    rubberduck@badziewiasz:~$ lsmod | grep gspca
    gspca 608336 0
    videodev 29312 1 gspca
    usbcore 138632 5 gspca,usbhid,ehci_hcd,uhci_hcd

    as for locating gspca:
    rubberduck@badziewiasz:~$ locate gspca.ko
    /lib/modules/2.6.22-14-generic/ubuntu/media/gspcav1/gspca.ko
    /lib/modules/2.6.22-14-generic/kernel/drivers/usb/media/gspca.ko
    /usr/src/gspcav1-20071224/gspca.ko
    /usr/src/gspcav1-20071224/.gspca.ko.cmd

    and in syslog there’s:

    Mar 29 17:54:40 badziewiasz kernel: [24713.672000] Linux video capture interface: v2.00
    Mar 29 17:54:40 badziewiasz kernel: [24713.696000] usbcore: registered new interface driver gspca
    Mar 29 17:54:40 badziewiasz kernel: [24713.696000] /build/buildd/linux-ubuntu-modules-2.6.22-2.6.22/debian/build/build-generic/media/gspcav1/gspca_core.c: gspca driver 01.00.12 registered

    I just dont quite get it… tried to reinstall it several times. Form my account and as a root, still no resultsm and no /dev/vid*

    any suggestion – would be very much obliged
    cheers

  21. rubberduck on

    forgot:
    when i plug it in i get in syslog the following
    Mar 29 18:30:22 badziewiasz kernel: [26855.272000] usb 2-2: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 3
    Mar 29 18:30:22 badziewiasz kernel: [26855.468000] usb 2-2: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice
    Mar 29 18:30:22 badziewiasz NetworkManager: [1206811822.251833] nm_hal_device_added(): New device added (hal udi is ‘/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/usb_device_ac8_307b_noserial’).
    Mar 29 18:30:22 badziewiasz NetworkManager: [1206811822.396461] nm_hal_device_added(): New device added (hal udi is ‘/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/usb_device_ac8_307b_noserial_if0’).
    Mar 29 18:30:22 badziewiasz NetworkManager: [1206811822.526007] nm_hal_device_added(): New device added (hal udi is ‘/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/usb_device_ac8_307b_noserial_usbraw’).

  22. Plastikman on

    Yeaaahhhh, it’s very good work, thanks…

  23. muztaba on

    how can i install this driver??? i have dl it..but can’t do the rest…xplain the installation pls

  24. rofranco on

    Hi Mustaba,

    After downloading the drivers, the next instructions have to be done in a terminal (command line). You need to feel a little comfortable with the command line.

    Tell me if there’s anything else I can do.

    Good luck!!

  25. sergio.b on

    Yeah, thanks, finally my webcam works on linux. It is a A4Tech PK-130 ID 0ac8:0328 Z-Star Microelectronics Corp.

  26. sergio.b on

    It works, but after a few minutes, it freezes…😦

  27. Miguel Lima on

    Cheap price isn’t all what you should look in a camera. With this webcam you get what you paid for:

    -Image quality is very poor comparing with other cheap cameras in this price range;

    – Terrible frame rate;

    -The night light is a joke and the sensor doesn’t work at all. You have to be in complete dark if you want the night light to turn on, and as you can imagine the joke they call light does not have suficient power to make the image visible;

    -The support from the manufacturers is non existing. If you ever loose your cd with the drivers, or put a scratch on it, forget about the camera. You will have a small piece of garbage in your hand since the drivers they have on their page don’t work. When i lost my cd with the drivers i tried to download them from the internet and couldn’t make them work. I started surfing web forums looking for other people that had lost their drivers too. What i found is that there isn’t a single soul on this planet that could make their drivers work. I even had a computer technician come by my house and try to install the drivers for the camera and he couldn’t either.
    I reported Zaapa staff about this problem and they couldn’t care less.

  28. rofranco on

    Hi Miguel,

    I agree with you mostly. With this webcam you get what you pay for… and for many users like me, that’s more than enough.

    I am sorry to know that you don’t have the Windows drivers. As you can see in my tutorial, with Linux you could still use your camera, thanks to the great and uninterested work of Michel Xhaard.

    Maybe you should consider migrating to Ubuntu, and start experiencing the “freedom”.

  29. Francisco Piragibe on

    Some of you might’ve already noticed that, although you’ve compiled a 01.00.20 gspca driver from source, you still get 01.00.12 as version when you load it. This is the original ubuntu driver, which must be replaced manually by the newly compiled one. Search lib/modules for gspca.ko and you will find 2 files: one is old; the newest is the 01.00.20 driver. Copy the new over the old one and reload: /dev/video will be created. Unfortunately, camorama still keeps freezing in my computer, and Skype only shows a black rectangle. I’m still trying to figure out how to fix this. My camera is a 0ac8:307b. If someone has been successful, please share the tips with all of us.

  30. renegadrian on

    Got a Vimicro
    Vendor 0xac8
    Product ID 0x307b

    Followed this tutorial – Skype works with no problem – OS is Kubuntu 7.04 – Thank you

    PS As someone else, the image I got is too bright…

  31. renegadrian on

    To miguel – I have found the drivers for windows and they work well on win2000.

  32. Carlos on

    FATAL: Error inserting gspca (/lib/modules/2.6.24-19-rt/ubuntu/media/gspcav1/gspca.ko): Unknown symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)

    Weel, it is what i did doing the tutorial….

    please, help me!!!! :-)=

  33. Carlos on

    At typing ‘sudo modprobe gspca’ i obtain :

    FATAL: Error inserting gspca (/lib/modules/2.6.24-19-rt/ubuntu/media/gspcav1/gspca.ko): Unknown symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)

    What i did?..

    please, help me!!!! :-)=

  34. almoheet4 on

    I followed the steps and it looks fine but it still not working,
    camorama gives me the following error:

    “Could not connect to video device(/dev/video0).
    Please check connection.”

  35. pinochet on

    Hello it’s working but you should to knowo that “linux-headers-$(uname-r)” package is required to proper install of gspca drivers.

  36. rofranco on

    Hello pinochet.

    Thanks for the tip. I didn’t realized about it because I had already installed that package before.

    I will update the post.

  37. Darshan on

    It doesn’t work.
    i get no error in modprobe or in dmesg but it doesn’t work.

    the driver create /dev/video0 but the device is not readable

    root@darshan-server:/# dd if=/dev/video0 |hexdump
    dd: apertura di `/dev/video0′: Errore di I/O

  38. wibort on

    hello at typing make i obtain:

    will@will-desktop:~/gspcav1-20071224$ make
    make -C /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build SUBDIRS=/home/will/gspcav1-20071224 CC=cc modules
    make[1]: se ingresa al directorio `/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.27-7-generic’
    CC [M] /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.o
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:54:27: error: asm/semaphore.h: No existe el fichero ó directorio
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: En la función ‘spca5xx_ioctl’:
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:2463: error: declaración implícita de la función ‘video_usercopy’
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: En el nivel principal:
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:2609: error: se especificó el campo desconocido ‘owner’ en el inicializador
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:2609: aviso: inicialización desde un tipo de puntero incompatible
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:2611: error: se especificó el campo desconocido ‘type’ en el inicializador
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: En la función ‘spca50x_create_sysfs’:
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:2769: error: declaración implícita de la función ‘video_device_create_file’
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:2780: error: declaración implícita de la función ‘video_device_remove_file’
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c: En la función ‘spca5xx_probe’:
    /home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.c:4301: error: tipos incompatibles en la asignación
    make[2]: *** [/home/will/gspcav1-20071224/gspca_core.o] Error 1
    make[1]: *** [_module_/home/will/gspcav1-20071224] Error 2
    make[1]: se sale del directorio `/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.27-7-generic’
    make: *** [default] Error 2

    please helpme !!

  39. rofranco on

    Hi wibort,

    I’m not sure about the errors that you have. It seems that the gspca driver is not compatible with your kernel. I’m currently using 2.6.24-21-generic which compiles OK.

    Maybe you can try to contact Michel Xhaard, the developer of the driver:
    http://mxhaard.free.fr/apropos.html

    FEEDBACK will be a good idea to mxhaard At users.sourceforge DOT net or mxhaard At free DOT fr

    If you have more information feel free to post here!!

    Good luck!!

  40. sbb3sm on

    dsfsdfs67877 test test

  41. travesti on

    Friends of the webcam can not find anywhere driverini. Why does the manufacturer stand behind their products I do not understand. Never again will receive an anonymous thing.

  42. Ruthie Wu on

    Many thanks to the author. Very useful post. I hope more of these.


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